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UA RU EN State Hydrographic Service of Ukraine State Hydrographic Service of Ukraine  

«Oceanographic Atlas of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov» No. 601

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The Oceanologic Centre with the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and State Hydrographic Service of Ukraine with the Ministry of Transport and Communications of Ukraine present the "Oceanographic Atlas of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov". Atlas is the first in Ukraine complex charting edition of this sort and it is an important milestone in the decades-long creative cooperation of Ukrainian oceanologists, hydrographers and cartographers.

The "Oceanographic Atlas" contains complex scientific information on the state of the environment and the main peculiarities of the Black and Azov Seas. Its charts reproduce in great detail the oceanologic, climatic, hydrographic and other characteristics of these seas.

The "Oceanographic Atlas of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov" will contribute to information support provision for marine economic activity and scientific research in this region and management decisions taken by administrations of various levels, and will also be helpful for organisation heads, practitioners, scientists, teachers and students.

CONTENT
Section 1. Introduction
    1. On history of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov study
    2. General oceanographic background of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov
Section 2. The main features of the geological structure and the coast types of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov
  2.1 Geological structure and ground deposits
    1. Substantial-genetic types of bottom sediments of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov
    2. Distribution of carbonates in bottom sediments of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov
    3. Mineral resources of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov
  2.2 Black Sea and Sea of Azov coastal zone
    1. Types of coasts of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov
    2. Mean rate of abrasion and accumulation 1960-1994
    3. Symbols
    4. Abrasion/accumulative liman coast. Dnistrovs’kyi Firth
    5. Abrasion/landslide oast. Odesa – Ochakiv
    6. Very flat low coast. Dzharylhats’ka Beak
    7. Abrasion coast. Kalamits’ka Gulf
    8. «Classic» beaks of the Sea of Azov
    9. Sea of Azov coast. Western part
    10. Sea of Azov coast. Eastern part
    11. Achuievo (Sea of Azov) to Dzhubga (Black Sea)
    12. Coast of Novorosiis’k and Gelendzhyk
    13. Adler to Batumi
    14. Caucasian coast from Novorosiis’k to Gagra
    15. Geomorphologic and geologic characteristics of the Black Sea coast within Bulgaria between Durankulak Cape and Resovs’ka River
    16. Geomorphologic and geologic characteristics of the Black Sea coast within Turkey (Asia Minor Peninsula)
Section 3. Climatic conditions
  3.1 Air temperature over the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov
    1. Air temperature (January)
    2. Air temperature (February)
    3. Air temperature (March)
    4. Air temperature (April)
    5. Air temperature (May)
    6. Air temperature (June)
    7. Air temperature (July)
    8. Air temperature (August)
    9. Air temperature (September)
    10. Air temperature (October)
    11. Air temperature (November)
    12. Air temperature (December)
    13. Average annual air temperature over the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov
    14. Air temperature in the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov ports. Yearly rate of mean and extreme values
    15. Air temperature in the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov ports. Histograms of air temperature repeatability
  3.2 Atmospheric pressure and wind speed over the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov
    1. Atmospheric pressure and wind speed (January)
    2. Atmospheric pressure and wind speed (February)
    3. Atmospheric pressure and wind speed (March)
    4. Atmospheric pressure and wind speed (April)
    5. Atmospheric pressure and wind speed (May)
    6. Atmospheric pressure and wind speed (June)
    7. Atmospheric pressure and wind speed (July)
    8. Atmospheric pressure and wind speed (August)
    9. Atmospheric pressure and wind speed (September)
    10. Atmospheric pressure and wind speed (October)
    11. Atmospheric pressure and wind speed (November)
    12. Atmospheric pressure and wind speed (December)
    13. Yearly wind roses in the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov ports and in the open shelf regions of the Black Sea
  3.3 Wind wave in the coastal zone
    1. Yearly wave roses in the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov ports and regimen probability of wave heights in the Black Sea coastal zone
  3.4 Atmospheric precipitations over the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov
  3.4.1 Mean multi-annual atmospheric precipitations over the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov
    1. Atmospheric precipitations (January)
    2. Atmospheric precipitations (February)
    3. Atmospheric precipitations (March)
    4. Atmospheric precipitations (April)
    5. Atmospheric precipitations (May)
    6. Atmospheric precipitations (June)
    7. Atmospheric precipitations (July)
    8. Atmospheric precipitations (August)
    9. Atmospheric precipitations (September)
    10. Atmospheric precipitations (October)
    11. Atmospheric precipitations (November)
    12. Atmospheric precipitations (December)
    13. Mean annual amount of atmospheric precipitations over the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov
    14. Mean and maximum precipitation values in the Ukrainian ports (), annual rate diagram of mean and monthly precipitation values in the Black Sea () and the Sea of Azov () ports; mean many-year precipitation along the Black Sea coast ()
  3.4.2 Atmospheric precipitation maps by monitoring data of 2004-2007 years
    15. Average annual precipitation sums (2004-2007)
    16. Average precipitation sums in 2004-2007 (January)
    17. Average precipitation sums in 2004-2007 (February)
    18. Average precipitation sums in 2004-2007 (March)
    19. Average precipitation sums in 2004-2007 (April)
    20. Average precipitation sums in 2004-2007 (May)
    21. Average precipitation sums in 2004-2007 (June)
    22. Average precipitation sums in 2004-2007 (July)
    23. Average precipitation sums in 2004-2007 (August)
    24. Average precipitation sums in 2004-2007 (September)
    25. Average precipitation sums in 2004-2007 (October)
    26. Average precipitation sums in 2004-2007 (November)
    27. Average precipitation sums in 2004-2007 (December)
Section 4. Hydrological conditions
  4.1 Water temperature
  4.1.1 Water temperature in the Black Sea
    1. Water temperature at the depth 0 m (January)
    2. Water temperature at the depth 0 m (February)
    3. Water temperature at the depth 0 m (March)
    4. Water temperature at the depth 0 m (April)
    5. Water temperature at the depth 0 m (May)
    6. Water temperature at the depth 0 m (June)
    7. Water temperature at the depth 0 m (July)
    8. Water temperature at the depth 0 m (August)
    9. Water temperature at the depth 0 m (September)
    10. Water temperature at the depth 0 m (October)
    11. Water temperature at the depth 0 m (November)
    12. Water temperature at the depth 0 m (December)
    13. Water temperature at the depth 20 m (January)
    14. Water temperature at the depth 20 m (February)
    15. Water temperature at the depth 20 m (March)
    16. Water temperature at the depth 20 m (April)
    17. Water temperature at the depth 20 m (May)
    18. Water temperature at the depth 20 m (June)
    19. Water temperature at the depth 20 m (July)
    20. Water temperature at the depth 20 m (August)
    21. Water temperature at the depth 20 m (September)
    22. Water temperature at the depth 20 m (October)
    23. Water temperature at the depth 20 m (November)
    24. Water temperature at the depth 20 m (December)
    25. Water temperature at the depth 50 m (January)
    26. Water temperature at the depth 50 m (February)
    27. Water temperature at the depth 50 m (March)
    28. Water temperature at the depth 50 m (April)
    29. Water temperature at the depth 50 m (May)
    30. Water temperature at the depth 50 m (June)
    31. Water temperature at the depth 50 m (July)
    32. Water temperature at the depth 50 m (August)
    33. Water temperature at the depth 50 m (September)
    34. Water temperature at the depth 50 m (October)
    35. Water temperature at the depth 50 m (November)
    36. Water temperature at the depth 50 m (December)
    37. Water temperature at the depth 75 m (January)
    38. Water temperature at the depth 75 m (February)
    39. Water temperature at the depth 75 m (March)
    40. Water temperature at the depth 75 m (April)
    41. Water temperature at the depth 75 m (May)
    42. Water temperature at the depth 75 m (June)
    43. Water temperature at the depth 75 m (July)
    44. Water temperature at the depth 75 m (August)
    45. Water temperature at the depth 75 m (September)
    46. Water temperature at the depth 75 m (October)
    47. Water temperature at the depth 75 m (November)
    48. Water temperature at the depth 75 m (December)
    49. Water temperature at the depth 100 m (January)
    50. Water temperature at the depth 100 m (February)
    51. Water temperature at the depth 100 m (March)
    52. Water temperature at the depth 100 m (April)
    53. Water temperature at the depth 100 m (May)
    54. Water temperature at the depth 100 m (June)
    55. Water temperature at the depth 100 m (July)
    56. Water temperature at the depth 100 m (August)
    57. Water temperature at the depth 100 m (September)
    58. Water temperature at the depth 100 m (October)
    59. Water temperature at the depth 100 m (November)
    60. Water temperature at the depth 100 m (December)
    61. Water temperature at the depth 300 m (January)
    62. Water temperature at the depth 300 m (February)
    63. Water temperature at the depth 300 m (March)
    64. Water temperature at the depth 300 m (April)
    65. Water temperature at the depth 300 m (May)
    66. Water temperature at the depth 300 m (June)
    67. Water temperature at the depth 300 m (July)
    68. Water temperature at the depth 300 m (August)
    69. Water temperature at the depth 300 m (September)
    70. Water temperature at the depth 300 m (October)
    71. Water temperature at the depth 300 m (November)
    72. Water temperature at the depth 300 m (December)
    73. Water temperature at the depth 400 m (yearly average)
    74. Water temperature at the depth 500 m (yearly average)
    75. Water temperature at the depth 1000 m (yearly average)
    76. Water temperature at the depth 1200 m (yearly average)
    77. Water temperature at the depth 1500 m (yearly average)
    78. Water temperature at the depth 2000 m (yearly average)
  4.1.2 Water temperature in the Sea of Azov
    79. Water temperature in surface layer (April)
    80. Water temperature in bottom layer (April)
    81. Water temperature in surface layer (May)
    82. Water temperature in bottom layer (May)
    83. Water temperature in surface layer (June)
    84. Water temperature in bottom layer (June)
    85. Water temperature in surface layer (July)
    86. Water temperature in bottom layer (July)
    87. Water temperature in surface layer (August)
    88. Water temperature in bottom layer (August)
    89. Water temperature in surface layer (September)
    90. Water temperature in bottom layer (September)
    91. Water temperature in surface layer (October)
    92. Water temperature in bottom layer (October)
    93. Water temperature in surface layer (November)
    94. Water temperature in bottom layer (November)
  4.2 Water salinity
  4.2.1 Water salinity in the Black Sea
    1. Water salinity at the depth 0 m (January)
    2. Water salinity at the depth 0 m (February)
    3. Water salinity at the depth 0 m (March)
    4. Water salinity at the depth 0 m (April)
    5. Water salinity at the depth 0 m (May)
    6. Water salinity at the depth 0 m (June)
    7. Water salinity at the depth 0 m (July)
    8. Water salinity at the depth 0 m (August)
    9. Water salinity at the depth 0 m (September)
    10. Water salinity at the depth 0 m (October)
    11. Water salinity at the depth 0 m (November)
    12. Water salinity at the depth 0 m (December)
    13. Water salinity at the depth 20 m (January)
    14. Water salinity at the depth 20 m (February)
    15. Water salinity at the depth 20 m (March)
    16. Water salinity at the depth 20 m (April)
    17. Water salinity at the depth 20 m (May)
    18. Water salinity at the depth 20 m (June)
    19. Water salinity at the depth 20 m (July)
    20. Water salinity at the depth 20 m (August)
    21. Water salinity at the depth 20 m (September)
    22. Water salinity at the depth 20 m (October)
    23. Water salinity at the depth 20 m (November)
    24. Water salinity at the depth 20 m (December)
    25. Water salinity at the depth 50 m (January)
    26. Water salinity at the depth 50 m (February)
    27. Water salinity at the depth 50 m (March)
    28. Water salinity at the depth 50 m (April)
    29. Water salinity at the depth 50 m (May)
    30. Water salinity at the depth 50 m (June)
    31. Water salinity at the depth 50 m (July)
    32. Water salinity at the depth 50 m (August)
    33. Water salinity at the depth 50 m (September)
    34. Water salinity at the depth 50 m (October)
    35. Water salinity at the depth 50 m (November)
    36. Water salinity at the depth 50 (December)
    37. Water salinity at the depth 75 m (January)
    38. Water salinity at the depth 75 m (February)
    39. Water salinity at the depth 75 m (March)
    40. Water salinity at the depth 75 m (April)
    41. Water salinity at the depth 75 m (May)
    42. Water salinity at the depth 75 m (June)
    43. Water salinity at the depth 75 m (July)
    44. Water salinity at the depth 75 m (August)
    45. Water salinity at the depth 75 m (September)
    46. Water salinity at the depth 75 m (October)
    47. Water salinity at the depth 75 (November)
    48. Water salinity at the depth 75 m (December)
    49. Water salinity at the depth 100 m (January)
    50. Water salinity at the depth 100 m (February)
    51. Water salinity at the depth 100 m (March)
    52. Water salinity at the depth 100 m (April)
    53. Water salinity at the depth 100 m (May)
    54. Water salinity at the depth 100 m (June)
    55. Water salinity at the depth 100 m (July)
    56. Water salinity at the depth 100 m (August)
    57. Water salinity at the depth 100 m (September)
    58. Water salinity at the depth 100 m (October)
    59. Water salinity at the depth 100 m (November)
    60. Water salinity at the depth 100 m (December)
    61. Water salinity at the depth 300 m (January)
    62. Water salinity at the depth 300 m (February)
    63. Water salinity at the depth 300 m (March)
    64. Water salinity at the depth 300 m (April)
    65. Water salinity at the depth 300 m (May)
    66. Water salinity at the depth 300 m (June)
    67. Water salinity at the depth 300 m (July)
    68. Water salinity at the depth 300 m (August)
    69. Water salinity at the depth 300 m (September)
    70. Water salinity at the depth 300 m (October)
    71. Water salinity at the depth 300 m (November)
    72. Water salinity at the depth 300 m (December)
    73. Water salinity at the depth 400 m (yearly average)
    74. Water salinity at the depth 500 m (yearly average)
    75. Water salinity at the depth 1000 m (yearly average)
    76. Water salinity at the depth 1200 m (yearly average)
    77. Water salinity at the depth 1500 m (yearly average)
    78. Water salinity at the depth 2000 m (yearly average)
  4.2.2 Water salinity in the Sea of Azov
    79. Water salinity in surface layer (April)
    80. Water salinity in bottom layer (April)
    81. Water salinity in surface layer (May)
    82. Water salinity in bottom layer (May)
    83. Water salinity in surface layer (June)
    84. Water salinity in bottom layer (June)
    85. Water salinity in surface layer (July)
    86. Water salinity in bottom layer(July)
    87. Water salinity in surface layer (August)
    88. Water salinity in bottom layer (August)
    89. Water salinity in surface layer (September)
    90. Water salinity in bottom layer (September)
    91. Water salinity in surface layer (October)
    92. Water salinity in bottom layer (October)
    93. Water salinity in surface layer (November)
    94. Water salinity in bottom layer (November)
  4.3 Water density in the Black Sea
    1. Specific water density at the depth 0 m (January)
    2. Specific water density at the depth 0 m (February)
    3. Specific water density at the depth 0 m (March)
    4. Specific water density at the depth 0 m (April)
    5. Specific water density at the depth 0 m (May)
    6. Specific water density at the depth 0 m (June)
    7. Specific water density at the depth 0 m (July)
    8. Specific water density at the depth 0 m (August)
    9. Specific water density at the depth 0 m (September)
    10. Specific water density at the depth 0 m (October)
    11. Specific water density at the depth 0 m (November)
    12. Specific water density at the depth 0 m (December)
    13. Specific water density at the depth 20 m (January)
    14. Specific water density at the depth 20 m (February)
    15. Specific water density at the depth 20 m (March)
    16. Specific water density at the depth 20 m (April)
    17. Specific water density at the depth 20 m (May)
    18. Specific water density at the depth 20 m (June)
    19. Specific water density at the depth 20 m (July)
    20. Specific water density at the depth 20 m (August)
    21. Specific water density at the depth 20 m (September)
    22. Specific water density at the depth 20 m (October)
    23. Specific water density at the depth 20 m (November)
    24. Specific water density at the depth 20 m (December)
    25. Specific water density at the depth 50 m (January)
    26. Specific water density at the depth 50 m (February)
    27. Specific water density at the depth 50 m (March)
    28. Specific water density at the depth 50 m (April)
    29. Specific water density at the depth 50 m (May)
    30. Specific water density at the depth 50 m (June)
    31. Specific water density at the depth 50 m (July)
    32. Specific water density at the depth 50 m (August)
    33. Specific water density at the depth 50 m (September)
    34. Specific water density at the depth 50 m (October)
    35. Specific water density at the depth 50 m (November)
    36. Specific water density at the depth 50 m (December)
    37. Specific water density at the depth 75 m (January)
    38. Specific water density at the depth 75 m (February)
    39. Specific water density at the depth 75 m (March)
    40. Specific water density at the depth 75 m (April)
    41. Specific water density at the depth 75 m (May)
    42. Specific water density at the depth 75 m (June)
    43. Specific water density at the depth 75 m (July)
    44. Specific water density at the depth 75 m (August)
    45. Specific water density at the depth 75 m (September)
    46. Specific water density at the depth 75 m (October)
    47. Specific water density at the depth 75 m (November)
    48. Specific water density at the depth 75 m (December)
    49. Specific water density at the depth 100 m (January)
    50. Specific water density at the depth 100 m (February)
    51. Specific water density at the depth 100 m (March)
    52. Specific water density at the depth 100 m (April)
    53. Specific water density at the depth 100 m (May)
    54. Specific water density at the depth 100 m (June)
    55. Specific water density at the depth 100 m (July)
    56. Specific water density at the depth 100 m (August)
    57. Specific water density at the depth 100 m (September)
    58. Specific water density at the depth 100 m (October)
    59. Specific water density at the depth 100 m (November)
    60. Specific water density at the depth 100 m (December)
    61. Specific water density at the depth 300 m (January)
    62. Specific water density at the depth 300 m (February)
    63. Specific water density at the depth 300 m (March)
    64. Specific water density at the depth 300 m (April)
    65. Specific water density at the depth 300 m (May)
    66. Specific water density at the depth 300 m (June)
    67. Specific water density at the depth 300 m (July)
    68. Specific water density at the depth 300 m (August)
    69. Specific water density at the depth 300 m (September)
    70. Specific water density at the depth 300 m (October)
    71. Specific water density at the depth 300 m (November)
    72. Specific water density at the depth 300 m (December)
    73. Specific water density at the depth 400 m (yearly average)
    74. Specific water density at the depth 500 m (yearly average)
    75. Specific water density at the depth 1000 m (yearly average)
    76. Specific water density at the depth 1200 m (yearly average)
    77. Specific water density at the depth 1500 m (yearly average)
    78. Specific water density at the depth 2000 m (yearly average)
  4.4 Water heat storage in the Black Sea
    1. Heat storage in layer 0-100 m (January)
    2. Heat storage in layer 0-100 m (February)
    3. Heat storage in layer 0-100 m (March)
    4. Heat storage in layer 0-100 m (April)
    5. Heat storage in layer 0-100 m (May)
    6. Heat storage in layer 0-100 m (June)
    7. Heat storage in layer 0-100 m (July)
    8. Heat storage in layer 0-100 m (August)
    9. Heat storage in layer 0-100 m (September)
    10. Heat storage in layer 0-100 m (October)
    11. Heat storage in layer 0-100 m (November)
    12. Heat storage in layer 0-100 m (December)
  4.5 Geostrophic currents of the Black Sea
    1. Geostrophic currents at the depth 0 m (January)
    2. Geostrophic currents at the depth 0 m (February)
    3. Geostrophic currents at the depth 0 m (March)
    4. Geostrophic currents at the depth 0 m (April)
    5. Geostrophic currents at the depth 0 m (May)
    6. Geostrophic currents at the depth 0 m (June)
    7. Geostrophic currents at the depth 0 m (July)
    8. Geostrophic currents at the depth 0 m (August)
    9. Geostrophic currents at the depth 0 m (September)
    10. Geostrophic currents at the depth 0 m (October)
    11. Geostrophic currents at the depth 0 m (November)
    12. Geostrophic currents at the depth 0 m (December)
  4.6 Currents, waves and sea level maps of the Sea of Azov
    1. Speed and direction of wind currents at the depth 1 m for northern wind type
    2. Speed and direction of wind currents at the depth 3 m for northern wind type
    3. Speed and direction of wind currents at the depth 5 m for northern wind type
    4. Speed and direction of wind currents at the depth 8 m for northern wind type
    5. Speed and direction of wind currents at the depth 1 m for north-eastern wind type
    6. Speed and direction of wind currents at the depth 3 m for north-eastern wind type
    7. Speed and direction of wind currents at the depth 5 m for north-eastern wind type
    8. Speed and direction of wind currents at the depth 8 m for north-eastern wind type
    9. Speed and direction of wind currents at the depth 1 m for eastern wind type
    10. Speed and direction of wind currents at the depth 3 m for eastern wind type
    11. Speed and direction of wind currents at the depth 5 m for eastern wind type
    12. Speed and direction of wind currents at the depth 8 m for eastern wind type
    13. Speed and direction of wind currents at the depth 1 m for south-eastern wind type
    14. Speed and direction of wind currents at the depth 3 m for south-eastern wind type
    15. Speed and direction of wind currents at the depth 5 m for south-eastern wind type
    16. Speed and direction of wind currents at the depth 8 m for south-eastern wind type
    17. Speed and direction of wind currents at the depth 1 m for southern wind type
    18. Speed and direction of wind currents at the depth 3 m for southern wind type
    19. Speed and direction of wind currents at the depth 5 m for southern wind type
    20. Speed and direction of wind currents at the depth 8 m for southern wind type
    21. Speed and direction of wind currents at the depth 1 m for south-western wind type
    22. Speed and direction of wind currents at the depth 3 m for south-western wind type
    23. Speed and direction of wind currents at the depth 5 m for south-western wind type
    24. Speed and direction of wind currents at the depth 8 m for south-western wind type
    25. Speed and direction of wind currents at the depth 1 m for western wind type
    26. Speed and direction of wind currents at the depth 3 m for western wind type
    27. Speed and direction of wind currents at the depth 5 m for western wind type
    28. Speed and direction of wind currents at the depth 8 m for western wind type
    29. Speed and direction of wind currents at the depth 1 m for north-western wind type
    30. Speed and direction of wind currents at the depth 3 m for north-western wind type
    31. Speed and direction of wind currents at the depth 5 m for north-western wind type
    32. Speed and direction of wind currents at the depth 8 m for north-western wind type
    33. Significant wave heights and mean wave directions for the northern wind type
    34. Significant wave heights and mean wave directions for the north-eastern wind type
    35. Significant wave heights and mean wave directions for the eastern wind type
    36. Significant wave heights and mean wave directions for the south-eastern wind type
    37. Significant wave heights and mean wave directions for the southern wind type
    38. Significant wave heights and mean wave directions for the south-western wind type
    39. Significant wave heights and mean wave directions for the western wind type
    40. Significant wave heights and mean wave directions for the north-western wind type
    41. Level of the Sea of Azov during southern wind type
    42. Level of the Sea of Azov during south-western wind type
    43. Level of the Sea of Azov during northern wind type
    44. Level of the Sea of Azov during north-eastern wind type
    45. Level of the Sea of Azov during eastern wind type
    46. Level of the Sea of Azov during south-eastern wind type
    47. Level of the Sea of Azov during western wind type
    48. Level of the Sea of Azov during north-western wind type
  4.7 Sea level on shore
    1. Repeatability and probability of dayly mean sea level values in the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov ports
    2. Location of hydrometeorological stations on the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov
  4.8 Surface currents
    1. Currents
    2. Scheme of water circulation
    3. Maximum currents speed
    4. Constant currents (January-March)
    5. Constant currents (April-June)
    6. Constant currents (July-September)
    7. Constant currents (October-December)
    8-9. North-eastern wind (wind speed 5-10 m/s). Wind currents
    10-11. North-eastern wind (wind speed over western part of the sea 10-15 m/s, over eastern 5-10 m/s). Wind currents
    12-13. North-eastern wind (wind speed 5-10 m/s, over north-eastern part of the sea 10-15 m/s). Wind currents
    14-15. North-eastern wind (wind speed 10-15 m/s, over south-eastern part of the sea 5-10 m/s). Wind currents
    16-17. North-eastern wind (wind speed over northern part of the sea 15-25 m/s, over southern 10-15 m/s). Wind currents
    18-19. North-eastern wind (wind speed over northern part of the sea 15-30 m/s, over southern 10-15 m/s). Wind currents
    20-21. North-eastern wind (wind speed 15-25 m/s, over north-eastern part of the sea 25-40 m/s). Wind currents
    22-23. Eastern wind (wind speed 5-10 m/s). Wind currents
    24-25. Eastern wind (wind speed over northern part of the sea 10-15 m/s, over southern 5-10 m/s). Wind currents
    26-27. Eastern wind (wind speed 10-15 m/s, over south-eastern part of the sea 5-10 m/s). Wind currents
    28-29. Eastern wind (wind speed 10-20 m/s, over south-eastern part of the sea 5-10 m/s). Wind currents
    30-31. Eastern wind (wind speed over northern part of the sea 20-35 m/s, over southern 10-20 m/s). Wind currents
    32-33. South-eastern wind (wind speed 5-10 m/s). Wind currents
    34-35. South-eastern wind (wind speed 10-15 m/s, over south-western part of the sea 5-10 m/s). Wind currents
    36-37. South-eastern wind (wind speed over western part of the sea 10-20 m/s, over eastern 5-10 m/s). Wind currents
    38-39. South-eastern wind (wind speed over northern part of the sea 15-25 m/s, over southern 10-15 m/s). Wind currents
    40-41. Southern and south-western winds (wind speed 5-10 m/s). Wind currents
    42-43. Southern and south-western winds (wind speed 5-10 m/s, over north-western part of the sea 10-15 m/s). Wind currents
    44-45. Southern and south-western winds (wind speed 5-10 m/s, over north-eastern part of the sea 10-15 m/s). Wind currents
    46-47. Southern and south-western winds (wind speed 10-15 m/s, over south-eastern part of the sea 5-10 m/s). Wind currents
    48-49. Southern and south-western winds (wind speed over western part of the sea 10-15 m/s, over eastern 5-20 m/s). Wind currents
    50-51. Southern and south-western winds (wind speed 10-15 m/s, in the north of central part of the sea 15-20 m/s). Wind currents
    52-53. Southern and south-western winds (wind speed 10-15 m/s, over north-eastern part of the sea 15-20 m/s). Wind currents
    54-55. Southern and south-western winds (wind speed 10-25 m/s, over south-eastern part of the sea 5-10 m/s). Wind currents
    56-57. Western wind (wind speed 5-10 m/s). Wind currents
    58-59. Western wind (wind speed over northern part of the sea 10-15 m/s, over southern 5-10 m/s). Wind currents
    60-61. Western wind (wind speed over northern part of the sea 10-20 m/s, over southern 5-10 m/s). Wind currents
    62-63. Western wind (wind speed 0-10 m/s, over south-eastern part of the sea 10-30 m/s). Wind currents
    64-65. Western wind (wind speed 10-20 m/s, over north-western part of the sea 25-35 m/s). Wind currents
    66-67. North-western wind (wind speed 5-10 m/s). Wind currents
    68-69. North-western wind (wind speed over western part of the sea 0-10 m/s, over eastern 10-15 m/s). Wind currents
    70-71. North-western wind (wind speed over northern part of the sea 10-15 m/s, over southern 5-10 m/s). Wind currents
    72-73. North-western wind (wind speed over northern part of the sea 15-20 m/s, over southern 5-15 m/s). Wind currents
    74-75. North-western wind (wind speed 10-20 m/s, over north-western part of the sea 20-25 m/s). Wind currents
    76-77. Northern wind (wind speed 5-10 m/s). Wind currents
    78-79. Northern wind (wind speed over western part of the sea 5-10 m/s, over eastern 10-15 m/s). Wind currents
    80-81. Northern wind (wind speed 10-15 m/s). Wind currents
    82-83. Northern wind (wind speed over western part of the sea 10-15 m/s, over eastern 0-10 m/s). Wind currents
    84-85. Northern wind (wind speed over western part of the sea 10-20 m/s, over eastern 0-10 m/s). Wind currents
    86-87. Northern wind (wind speed 15-20 m/s, over south-eastern part of the sea 5-15 m/s). Wind currents
    88-89. Cyclonic wind (wind speed 5-10 m/s). Wind currents
    90-91. Cyclonic wind (wind speed 10-15 m/s). Wind currents
  4.9 Ice conditions
  4.9.1 Ice conditions of the Black Sea
    1. Maximal expansion of the fast ice edge in soft winters (December)
    2. Ice concentration in soft winters (December)
    3. Maximal expansion of the fast ice edge in soft winters (January)
    4. Ice concentration in soft winters (January)
    5. Maximal expansion of the fast ice edge in soft winters (February)
    6. Ice concentration in soft winters (February)
    7. Maximal expansion of the fast ice edge in temperate winters (December)
    8. Ice concentration in temperate winters (December)
    9. Maximal expansion of the fast ice edge in temperate winters (January)
    10. Ice concentration in temperate winters (January)
    11. Maximal expansion of the fast ice edge in temperate winters (February)
    12. Ice concentration in temperate winters (February)
    13. Maximal expansion of the fast ice edge in temperate winters (March)
    14. Ice concentration in temperate winters (March)
    15. Maximal expansion of the fast ice edge in severe winters (December)
    16. Ice concentration in severe winters (December)
    17. Maximal expansion of the fast ice edge in severe winters (January)
    18. Ice concentration in severe winters (January)
    19. Maximal expansion of the fast ice edge in severe winters (February)
    20. Ice concentration in severe winters (February)
    21. Maximal expansion of the fast ice edge in severe winters(March)
    22. Ice concentration in severe winters (March)
    23. Maximal extension of drift and fast ice on north-western shelf of the Black Sea according to air observation data in extremely severe winters – 28.02.1954
    24. Maximal extension of drift and fast ice on north-western shelf of the Black Sea according to air observation data in extremely severe winters – 26.01.1972
  4.9.2 Ice conditions of the Sea of Azov
    1. Fast ice probability in soft winters (December)
    2. Ice concentration in soft winters (December)
    3. Fast ice probability in soft winters (January)
    4. Ice concentration in soft winters (January)
    5. Fast ice probability in soft winters (February)
    6. Ice concentration in soft winters (February)
    7. Fast ice probability in soft winters (March)
    8. Ice concentration in soft winters (March)
    9. Fast ice probability in temperate winters (December)
    10. Ice concentration in temperate winters (December)
    11. Fast ice probability in temperate winters (January)
    12. Ice concentration in temperate winters (January)
    13. Fast ice probability in temperate winters (February)
    14. Ice concentration in temperate winters (February)
    15. Fast ice probability in temperate winters (March)
    16. Ice concentration in temperate winters (March)
    17. Fast ice probability in severe winters (December)
    18. Ice concentration in severe winters (December)
    19. Fast ice probability in severe winters (January)
    20. Ice concentration in severe winters (January)
    21. Fast ice probability in severe winters (February)
    22. Ice concentration in severe winters (February)
    23. Fast ice probability in severe winters (March)
    24. Ice concentration in severe winters (March)
  4.10 Hydroacoustic properties of the Black Sea
    1. Sound speed at the depth 0 m (January)
    2. Sound speed at the depth 0 m (February)
    3. Sound speed at the depth 0 m (March)
    4. Sound speed at the depth 0 m (April)
    5. Sound speed at the depth 0 m (May)
    6. Sound speed at the depth 0 m (June)
    7. Sound speed at the depth 0 m (July)
    8. Sound speed at the depth 0 m (August)
    9. Sound speed at the depth 0 m (September)
    10. Sound speed at the depth 0 m (October)
    11. Sound speed at the depth 0 m (November)
    12. Sound speed at the depth 0 m (December)
    13. Sound speed at the depth 20 m (January)
    14. Sound speed at the depth 20 m (February)
    15. Sound speed at the depth 20 m (March)
    16. Sound speed at the depth 20 m (April)
    17. Sound speed at the depth 20 m (May)
    18. Sound speed at the depth 20 m (June)
    19. Sound speed at the depth 20 m (July)
    20. Sound speed at the depth 20 m (August)
    21. Sound speed at the depth 20 m (September)
    22. Sound speed at the depth 20 m (October)
    23. Sound speed at the depth 20 m (November)
    24. Sound speed at the depth 20 m (December)
    25. Sound speed at the depth 50 m (January)
    26. Sound speed at the depth 50 m (February)
    27. Sound speed at the depth 50 m (March)
    28. Sound speed at the depth 50 m (April)
    29. Sound speed at the depth 50 m (May)
    30. Sound speed at the depth 50 m (June)
    31. Sound speed at the depth 50 m (July)
    32. Sound speed at the depth 50 m (August)
    33. Sound speed at the depth 50 m (September)
    34. Sound speed at the depth 50 m (October)
    35. Sound speed at the depth 50 m (November)
    36. Sound speed at the depth 50 m (December)
    37. Sound speed at the depth 75 m (January)
    38. Sound speed at the depth 75 m (February)
    39. Sound speed at the depth 75 (March)
    40. Sound speed at the depth 75 m (April)
    41. Sound speed at the depth 75 m (May)
    42. Sound speed at the depth 75 m (June)
    43. Sound speed at the depth 75 m (July)
    44. Sound speed at the depth 75 m (August)
    45. Sound speed at the depth 75 m (September)
    46. Sound speed at the depth 75 m (October)
    47. Sound speed at the depth 75 m (November)
    48. Sound speed at the depth 75 m (December)
    49. Sound speed at the depth 100 m (January)
    50. Sound speed at the depth 100 m (February)
    51. Sound speed at the depth 100 m (March)
    52. Sound speed at the depth 100 m (April)
    53. Sound speed at the depth 100 m (May)
    54. Sound speed at the depth 100 m (June)
    55. Sound speed at the depth 100 m (July)
    56. Sound speed at the depth 100 m (August)
    57. Sound speed at the depth 100 m (September)
    58. Sound speed at the depth 100 m (October)
    59. Sound speed at the depth 100 m (November)
    60. Sound speed at the depth 100 m (December)
    61. Sound speed at the depth 150 m (January)
    62. Sound speed at the depth 150 m (February)
    63. Sound speed at the depth 150 m (March)
    64. Sound speed at the depth 150 m (April)
    65. Sound speed at the depth 150 m (May)
    66. Sound speed at the depth 150 m (June)
    67. Sound speed at the depth 150 m (July)
    68. Sound speed at the depth 150 m (August)
    69. Sound speed at the depth 150 m (September)
    70. Sound speed at the depth 150 m (October)
    71. Sound speed at the depth 150 m (November)
    72. Sound speed at the depth 150 m (December)
    73. Sound speed at the depth 200 m (January)
    74. Sound speed at the depth 200 m (February)
    75. Sound speed at the depth 200 m (March)
    76. Sound speed at the depth 200 m (April)
    77. Sound speed at the depth 200 m (May)
    78. Sound speed at the depth 200 m (June)
    79. Sound speed at the depth 200 m (July)
    80. Sound speed at the depth 200 m (August)
    81. Sound speed at the depth 200 m (September)
    82. Sound speed at the depth 200 m (October)
    83. Sound speed at the depth 200 m (November)
    84. Sound speed at the depth 200 m (December)
    85. Sound speed at the depth 300 m (January)
    86. Sound speed at the depth 300 m (February)
    87. Sound speed at the depth 300 m (March)
    88. Sound speed at the depth 300 m (April)
    89. Sound speed at the depth 300 m (May)
    90. Sound speed at the depth 300 m (June)
    91. Sound speed at the depth 300 m (July)
    92. Sound speed at the depth 300 m (August)
    93. Sound speed at the depth 300 m (September)
    94. Sound speed at the depth 300 m (October)
    95. Sound speed at the depth 300 m (November)
    96. Sound speed at the depth 300 m (December)
    97. Sound speed at the depth 400 m (yearly average)
    98. Sound speed at the depth 500 m (yearly average)
    99. Sound speed at the depth 1000 m (yearly average)
    100. Sound speed at the depth 1200 m (yearly average)
    101. Sound speed at the depth 1500 m (yearly average)
    102. Sound speed at the depth 2000 m (yearly average)
    103. Axis depth of underwater sofar channel (January)
    104. Axis depth of underwater sofar channel (February)
    105. Axis depth of underwater sofar channel (March)
    106. Axis depth of underwater sofar channel (April)
    107. Axis depth of underwater sofar channel (May)
    108. Axis depth of underwater sofar channel (June)
    109. Axis depth of underwater sofar channel (July)
    110. Axis depth of underwater sofar channel (August)
    111. Axis depth of underwater sofar channel (September)
    112. Axis depth of underwater sofar channel (October)
    113. Axis depth of underwater sofar channel (November)
    114. Axis depth of underwater sofar channel (December)
    115. Sound speed on axis of underwater sofar channel (January)
    116. Sound speed on axis of underwater sofar channel (February)
    117. Sound speed on axis of underwater sofar channel (March)
    118. Sound speed on axis of underwater sofar channel (April)
    119. Sound speed on axis of underwater sofar channel (May)
    120. Sound speed on axis of underwater sofar channel (June)
    121. Sound speed on axis of underwater sofar channel (July)
    122. Sound speed on axis of underwater sofar channel (August)
    123. Sound speed on axis of underwater sofar channel (September)
    124. Sound speed on axis of underwater sofar channel (October)
    125. Sound speed on axis of underwater sofar channel (November)
    126. Sound speed on axis of underwater sofar channel (December)
  4.11 Hydrological optics
    1. In cold period depth of Secchi disk visibility
    2. In warm period depth of Secchi disk visibility
    3. Annual average depth of Secchi disk visibility
Section 5. Hydrochemical conditions
  5.1 Hydrochemistry of the Black Sea
    1. Dissolved oxygen in 0-10 layer of the Black Sea (1950-2003) yearly average
    2. Dissolved oxygen in 0-10 layer of the Black Sea (1950-2003) in January
    3. Dissolved oxygen in 0-10 layer of the Black Sea (1950-2003) in March
    4. Dissolved oxygen in 0-10 layer of the Black Sea (1950-2003) in August
    5. Dissolved oxygen in 0-10 layer of the Black Sea (1950-2003) in November
    6. Dissolved oxygen at 100 depth of the Black Sea – yearly average (1923-2003)
    7. Dissolved oxygen at 100 depth of the Black Sea – yearly average (1955-1982)
    8. Dissolved oxygen at 100 depth of the Black Sea – yearly average (1983-2003)
    9. Sulfides at 100 m depth of the Black Sea (1964-2003)
    10. Sulfides at 200 m depth of the Black Sea (1964-2003)
    11. Sulfides at 300 m depth of the Black Sea (1964-2003)
    12. Sulfides at 500 m depth of the Black Sea (1985-2003)
    13. Sulfides at 100 m depth of the Black Sea (1985-2003)
    14. Sulfides at 200 m depth of the Black Sea (1985-2003)
    15. Ammonium in 0-20 m layer of the Black Sea (1955-2003)
    16. Nitrates in 0-20 m layer of the Black Sea (1957-2003)
    17. Nitrates at 90 m depth of the Black Sea (1957-2003)
    18. Phosphates in 0-20 m layer of the Black Sea (1955-2003)
    19. Silicates in 0-20 m layer of the Black Sea (1955-1979)
    20. Silicates in 0-20 m layer of the Black Sea (1980-2002)
    21. Silicates at 100 m depth of the Black Sea (1955-2002)
    22. Silicates at 500 m depth of the Black Sea (1955-1983)
    23. Silicates at 500 m depth of the Black Sea (1984-2002)
    24. Vertical distribution profile of oxygen and sulfides
    25. Vertical distribution profile of phosphates and nitrates
    26. Vertical distribution profile of silicates and ammonium
    27. Aerobic water lower limit in the Black Sea
    28. Anaerobic water upper limit in the Black Sea
  5.2 Hydrochemistry of the Sea of Azov
    1. Dissolved oxygen in surface waters (spring)
    2. Dissolved oxygen in bottom waters (spring)
    3. Dissolved oxygen in surface waters (summer)
    4. Dissolved oxygen in bottom waters (summer)
    5. Dissolved oxygen in surface waters (autumn)
    6. Dissolved oxygen in bottom waters (autumn)
    7. Dissolved oxygen in surface waters (winter)
    8. Dissolved oxygen in bottom waters (winter)
    9. Phosphates in surface waters (spring)
    10. Phosphates in bottom waters (spring)
    11. Phosphates in surface waters (summer)
    12. Phosphates in bottom waters (summer)
    13. Phosphates in surface waters (autumn)
    14. Phosphates in bottom waters (autumn)
    15. Nitrites in surface waters (spring)
    16. Nitrites in bottom waters (spring)
    17. Nitrites in surface waters (summer)
    18. Nitrites in bottom waters (summer)
    19. Nitrites in surface waters (autumn)
    20. Nitrites in bottom waters (autumn)
    21. Silicates in surface waters (spring)
    22. Silicates in bottom waters (spring)
    23. Silicates in surface waters (summer)
    24. Silicates in bottom waters (summer)
    25. Silicates in surface waters (autumn)
    26. Silicates in bottom waters (autumn)
    27. Position of oceanographic stations
Section 6. Biological resources
    1. Distribution of bacterioplankton abundance at the depth 25 m in the Black Sea
    2. Distribution of bacterioplankton abundance on the surface of the Black Sea
    3. Primary production under surface square in the Black Sea (March)
    4. Primary production under surface square in the Black Sea (August)
    5. Chlorophyl concentration in the surface layer of the Black Sea (March)
    6. Chlorophyl concentration in the surface layer of the Black Sea (August)
    7. The share of the main taxa (%) in the summary meanings of abundance (N) and biomass (B) of phytoplankton in winter period
    8. Biomass of fodder zooplankton in summer (the layer 0-100 m and 0 – bottom with the sea depths >and<100m )
    9. Seasonal dynamics of bioluminescence field in layer 0-10 m (November-April)
    10. Seasonal dynamics of bioluminescence field in layer 0-10 m (May-October)
    11. Seasonal dynamics of bioluminescence field in layer 11-25 m (November-April)
    12. Seasonal dynamics of bioluminescence field in layer 11-25 m (May-October)
    13. Seasonal dynamics of bioluminescence field in layer 26-50 m (November-April)
    14. Seasonal dynamics of bioluminescence field in layer 26-50 m (May-October)
    15. Distribution of the main types of the bottom vegetation in Ukrainian shelf zone (Azov-Black Sea Basin)
    16. Composition and structure of macrophytes regional flora in the Black Sea basin
    17. Peculiarities of new macrophytes special distribution in the Black Sea basin
    18. Location of macrophytes-aliens in the coastal Black Sea water areas
    19. Distribution of ichthyoplankton in shelf of Ukraine
    20. Distribution of the fish productive regions in the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov waters
    21. Oxygen deficit zones (1950-1960)
    22. Oxygen deficit zones (1960-1970)
    23. Oxygen deficit zones (1970-1980)
    24. Oxygen deficit zones (1973)
    25. Oxygen deficit zones (1980-1990)
    26. Oxygen deficit zones (1990-2000)
Section 7. Navigational hydrographic support
    1. Black Sea and Sea of Azov. Allocation scheme of regimen sea areas and established vessel traffic routes in Ukrainian waters
    2. Nautical chart No 3001 «Black Sea and Sea of Azov»
    3. Nautical chart No 3225 «Odesa to Mykolaiv and Kherson»
    4. Nautical chart No 3108 «Sea of Azov»
    5. Nautical chart No 3606 «Illichivs’k Port with approaches»
    6. Bathymetric chart of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov
    7. The Black Sea region statistical 3D model
    8. Mine danger in the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov
    9. Wrecks in the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov
    10. Soils of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov
Section 8. Dangerous phenomena
  8.1 Meteorological dangerous phenomena
    1. Surface atmospheric pressure 24.02.1976 during north-eastern storm
    2. Surface wind 24.02.1976 during north-eastern storm
    3. Surface atmospheric pressure 18.01.1977 during eastern storm
    4. Surface wind 18.01.1977 during eastern storm
    5. Surface atmospheric pressure 24.12.1980 during various storm directions
    6. Surface wind 24.12.1980 during various storm directions
    7. Surface atmospheric pressure 15.11.1992 during various storm directions
    8. Surface wind 15.11.1992 during various storm directions
    9. Yearly repeatability (%) of storm wave roses (3 balls) in the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov ports
    10. Yearly repeatability (%) of storm wind roses (>10 m/s) in the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov ports and the Black Sea open shelf regions
List of reference